Publications on non-standard forms of employment

  1. ILO Working paper 38

    Freelance platform work in the Russian Federation: 2009–2019

    26 July 2021

    This paper traces the development of freelance platform work in the Russian Federation based on unique data from four online surveys conducted over the period 2009 and 2019 via the leading platform for creative and knowledge-based work and analyses the working conditions and well-being of the workers.

  2. ILO Working paper 32

    Digital Work in Eastern Europe: Overview of Trends, Outcomes, and Policy Responses

    25 May 2021

    This paper presents the emergence and growth of digital labour markets in Eastern Europe over the period 1999-2019. It presents the profiles of digital workers, their working conditions and discusses how these are shaped by the business models of digital labour platforms.

  3. ILO Working paper 27

    Platform work and the employment relationship

    31 March 2021

    This working paper analyses national and supranational case law and legislation about the employment status of platform workers. It does so by referring to the ILO Employment Relationship Recommendation, 2006 (No. 198). It finds that this Recommendation provides for a valuable compass to navigate the issues that emerge from the analysis of the existing case law and legislation about platform work.

  4. ILO Working paper 25

    Homeworking in the Philippines: Bad job ? Good job ?

    09 March 2021

    This report focuses on two categories of homeworkers in the Philippines: industrial homeworkers, who assemble or fabricate goods for factories, retailers or their agents under subcontracting arrangements; and online workers, who render services to their clients or employers via telecommunications technologies and digital platforms.

  5. World Employment and Social Outlook 2021

    The role of digital labour platforms in transforming the world of work [Full report]

    23 February 2021

    This ILO flagship report explores how the contemporary platform economy is transforming the way work is organized, and analyses the impact of digital labour platforms on enterprises, workers and society as a whole.

  6. World Employment and Social Outlook 2021

    The role of digital labour platforms in transforming the world of work [Summary]

    23 February 2021

    This report examines how digital labour platforms are transforming the world of work and how that affects employers and workers. It focuses on two main types of digital labour platform: online web-based platforms, where tasks are performed online and remotely by workers, and location-based platforms, where tasks are performed at a specified physical location by individuals, such as taxi drivers and delivery workers.

  7. WIEGO Statistic Brief no. 27

    Home-based Workers in the World: A Statistical Profile

    19 February 2021

    Globally, 260 million women and men are employed in home-based work, including 35 million in developed countries.

  8. ILO Working paper 24

    Online digital labour platforms in China: Working conditions, policy issues and prospects

    02 February 2021

    This paper summarizes the results of an ILO survey, conducted in 2019, of workers’ characteristics and working conditions on three major digital labour platforms in China.

  9. ILO Working paper 22

    Home-based work and homework in Ghana: An exploration

    22 January 2021

    This research report explores the nature and character of home-based work and the more narrow concept of homework in Ghana.

  10. Publication

    Working from home: From invisibility to decent work

    13 January 2021

    With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, many in the world’s workforce have shifted to homeworking, thereby joining the hundreds of millions of workers who have already been working from home for decades.