Working papers

2017

  1. Labour Unions and the promotion of inclusive finance for workers

    23 May 2017

    Social Finance Working Paper. 73

  2. The role of investment incentives for structural transformation: A comparative analysis of investment incentives legislation in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and South-East Asia

    18 May 2017

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 211

  3. Pro-employment budgeting in the United Republic of Tanzania: A country study

    17 May 2017

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 213

  4. Sectoral collective bargaining, productivity and competitiveness in South Africa’s clothing value chain: manufacturers between a rock and a hard place

    16 May 2017

    This working paper focusses on the role of sectoral collective bargaining in wage setting and the different factors that might account for the link between wage and productivity growth. It examines various initiatives to improve productivity in the South African clothing sector. These include sectoral framework agreements on the adoption of productivity schemes at the enterprise level, the introduction of ‘world class manufacturing techniques’, consultant-led productivity schemes, and management-designed incentive schemes introduced in consultation with workers. The study finds that sectoral-level bargaining is effective in establishing a common wage floor for the industry that also rewards more productive firms (and workers). Moreover, during a period of liberalization and industry restructuring, wage have been rising alongside increases in labour productivity. However, this link between wages and productivity was not achieved through “organized decentralization” (i.e. enterprise-level productivity bargaining within a sectoral framework agreement). Rather, it was the outcome of a “complex package of competitive strategies pursued by firms”. These included, notably, management capability and capacity and relations between retailers (‘buyers’) and manufacturers. The paper also examines the challenges experience by some manufacturers in respect of compliance with wages and the manner in which the gains are distributed in the value chain. It concludes with some ideas about the need for a new approach to collective bargaining in light of the restructuring of the clothing value chain in South Africa.

  5. Top income share and economic growth: Linear and non-linear effects

    09 May 2017

    This paper estimates the impact of inequality on growth, focusing on non-linearity and using top income share data that provides us with yearly observations over a long time period. A first result is that the relationship between inequality and growth is non-linear in contrast with most existing studies which focus on a linear relationship. Using panel threshold regression and panel smooth threshold regression methods, we show that the impact of inequality on growth is negative but the effect is larger when inequality is low. This result differs from existing work that stresses either a positive effect using linear estimation or a concave relationship using simple non-linearity. Lastly, heterogeneity across countries is related to the magnitude and the timing of the change in the elasticity.

  6. Zambia’s Employment Outlook: Diversification, Formalization and Education

    26 April 2017

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 212

  7. South Africa: Case study on working time organization and its effects in the health services sector

    21 March 2017

    The present working paper explores the complex issues around working time organization and their effects in the health services sector in South Africa. It is one of the products of a research initiative jointly carried out by the ILO Working Conditions and Equality Department (WORKQUALITY) and the ILO Sectoral Policies Department (SECTOR), in follow-up to the Conclusions of the Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Working Time Arrangements (2011). The research initiative aimed to develop a better understanding on how contemporary working time arrangements function in specific sectors and for different types of workers with the main objective of identifying aspects where improvements in working time arrangements and related practices can better meet both workers’ needs and organizational requirements.

  8. Wastewater and jobs: The Decent Work approach to reducing untreated wastewater

    21 March 2017

    This working paper discusses the potential of investments of wastewater and how they impact productivity, livelihoods, job creation, skills needs, occupational safety and health, and women’s employment. It further identifies the respective roles of the public and private sectors and of cooperatives.

  9. Social Finance for Social Economy

    20 February 2017

    Social Finance Working Paper. 67

  10. The Social Dimensions of Development Finance in Asia and the Pacific Results of a survey among ADFIAP members

    20 February 2017

    Social Finance Working Paper. 71