Working papers


  1. The impact of procurement practices in the electronics sector on labour rights and temporary and other forms of employment

    16 January 2017

    This working paper looks at the purchasing practices and how they impact rights at work, wages, working hours, non-standard forms of employment and occupational safety and health. It further discusses public governance and private standards in the electronics supply chain and concludes by evaluating how different stakeholders can impact the purchasing practices.


  1. Evaluating the effects of the structural labour market reforms on collective bargaining in Greece

    15 December 2016

    The present report assesses the social and economic impact of the changes in the regulatory framework of collective bargaining in Greece.

  2. Social protection systems in Latin America: An assessment

    08 December 2016

    This paper assesses the present state of social protection systems in Latin America and their future challenges.

  3. Health workforce: A global supply chain approach. New data on the employment effects of health economies in 185 countries.

    08 December 2016

    This paper provides evidence that investments in health protection not only impact on the achievement of health objectives, but also create an important source of employment across numerous economic sectors.

  4. A just transition to climate-resilient economies and societies: Issues and perspectives for the world of work

    29 November 2016

    This technical paper addresses the negative impacts of climate change on employment and livelihoods and explores how climate-related policy, investment and consumption responses to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change can affect labour markets in their entirety with overall job gains. It stresses the need of accompanying social and economic policies to achieve a just transition for all that leaves no one behind and promotes decent work.

  5. The role of labour market and sectoral policies in promoting more and better jobs in China: Issues, evidence and policy optionsevidence and policy options

    25 November 2016

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 208

  6. The role of monetary and fiscal policies in promoting more and better jobs in China: Issues, evidence and policy options

    25 November 2016

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 207

  7. Employment and labour market policies for a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economy and societies for all

    09 November 2016

  8. Labour Mobility and Regional Climate Adaptation

    07 November 2016

    A brief note from the ILO Labour Migration Branch on labour mobility in the context of climate change. It considers how regular labour migration, when in line with labour standards, can contribute to climate adaptation and development in countries of origin and destination.

  9. Post-crisis social dialogue in Spain: The calm after the storm

    01 November 2016

    This study examines the challenges facing tripartite social dialogue in Spain and its potential for revitalization following the timid steps taken by successive governments and the social partners. The authors contrast this situation to the resilience of bipartite social dialogue between trade unions and employer organizations, and the positive contribution it made to coordinating collective bargaining through this difficult economic and political period. The report highlights a number of good practices in seeking to re-launch tripartite social dialogue, including a 2014 Declaration of Intent signed by trade unions, employers’ organizations and the government, and a pact on employment activation policies for the long-term unemployed. These achievements are promising, although additional efforts are needed to fully revitalize social dialogue and contribute to a stronger economic and labour market recovery. The paper considers also the role of social dialogue in key policy issues such as labour market and pension reforms, and the formulation and implementation of National Reform Programmes in the context of the European Semester.