Working papers


  1. The motherhood pay gap: A review of the issues, theory and international evidence

    06 March 2015

    Evidence that mothers suffer a wage penalty over and above the penalty for being a woman raises concerns not only for gender equality but also for the capacity of societies to manage a sustainable balance between their economic aims of active female participation in paid work and the social aims of providing a fair distribution of income to support the reproduction and rearing of children. These concerns underpin ILO Conventions designed to combat inequality in women’s position in paid employment, especially associated with motherhood status.

  2. ASEAN Community 2015: Managing integration for better jobs and shared prosperity in Myanmar

    25 February 2015

    This paper was prepared for the International Labour Organization (ILO) as a background study. It is based on data from previously published sources, information gathered in Myanmar's employees'and employers'forums and primary data collected through the Myanmar Marketing Research and Development Co. labour survey.

  3. Challenges of price stability, growth and employment in Bangladesh: Role of the Bangladesh Bank

    23 February 2015

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 169

  4. Sectoral dimensions of employment targeting

    23 February 2015

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 166

  5. Are active labour market policies effective in activating and integrating low-skilled individuals? : An international comparison

    23 February 2015

    This paper examines the effectiveness of active labour market policies (ALMPs) in improving labour market outcomes, especially of low-skilled individuals. The empirical analysis consists of an aggregate impact approach based on a pooled cross country and time series database for 31 advanced countries during the period 1985–2010. A novelty of the paper is that it includes aspects of the delivery system to see how the performance of ALMPs is affected by different implementation characteristics. Among the notable results, the paper finds that ALMPs matter at the aggregate level, both, in terms of reducing unemployment, but also in terms of increasing employment and participation. Interestingly, start-up incentives are more effective in reducing unemployment than other ALMPs. The positive effects seem to be particularly beneficial for the low-skilled. In terms of implementation, the paper finds that the most favourable aspect is the allocation of resources to programme administration. Finally, a disruption of policy continuity is associated with negative effects for all labour market variables analysed.

  6. Working Paper - Cooperating out of Isolation: The Case of Migrant Domestic Workers in Lebanon, Jordan and Kuwait

    12 February 2015

    While countries globally are moving towards recognizing domestic workers under their labour legislation, limited protection is provided to more than two million domestic workers working and living in the Middle East. The majority of these workers are migrant women and while for many of them, migration is an enriching experience, others face a journey of fear and unfair treatment.

  7. Modern slavery: the concepts and their practical implications

    05 February 2015

    This paper takes a historical approach examining important differences between individual and systemic cases of coercion which necessitate distinct legal and policy responses.

  8. Forced and compulsory labour in international human rights law

    05 February 2015

    This paper takes a historical approach examining how the understanding of the scope of slavery and forced and compulsory labour, as well as other forms of compelled labour, has evolved.

  9. The organization of working time and its effects in the health services sector: A comparative analysis of Brazil, South Africa and the Republic of Korea

    28 January 2015

  10. At work but earning less: Trends in decent pay and minimum wages for young people

    19 January 2015

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 162