Working papers


  1. ASEAN Community 2015: Managing integration for better jobs and shared prosperity in Myanmar

    25 February 2015

    This paper was prepared for the International Labour Organization (ILO) as a background study. It is based on data from previously published sources, information gathered in Myanmar's employees'and employers'forums and primary data collected through the Myanmar Marketing Research and Development Co. labour survey.

  2. Challenges of price stability, growth and employment in Bangladesh: Role of the Bangladesh Bank

    23 February 2015

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 169

  3. Sectoral dimensions of employment targeting

    23 February 2015

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 166

  4. Are active labour market policies effective in activating and integrating low-skilled individuals? : An international comparison

    23 February 2015

    This paper examines the effectiveness of active labour market policies (ALMPs) in improving labour market outcomes, especially of low-skilled individuals. The empirical analysis consists of an aggregate impact approach based on a pooled cross country and time series database for 31 advanced countries during the period 1985–2010. A novelty of the paper is that it includes aspects of the delivery system to see how the performance of ALMPs is affected by different implementation characteristics. Among the notable results, the paper finds that ALMPs matter at the aggregate level, both, in terms of reducing unemployment, but also in terms of increasing employment and participation. Interestingly, start-up incentives are more effective in reducing unemployment than other ALMPs. The positive effects seem to be particularly beneficial for the low-skilled. In terms of implementation, the paper finds that the most favourable aspect is the allocation of resources to programme administration. Finally, a disruption of policy continuity is associated with negative effects for all labour market variables analysed.

  5. Forced and compulsory labour in international human rights law

    05 February 2015

    This paper takes a historical approach examining how the understanding of the scope of slavery and forced and compulsory labour, as well as other forms of compelled labour, has evolved.

  6. The organization of working time and its effects in the health services sector: A comparative analysis of Brazil, South Africa and the Republic of Korea

    28 January 2015

  7. At work but earning less: Trends in decent pay and minimum wages for young people

    19 January 2015

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 162


  1. Is there a trade-off between employment and productivity?

    18 December 2014

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 167

  2. Labour demand and social dialogue: Two binding constraints for decent work for youth in the Arab Region

    18 December 2014

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 164

  3. Tobacco Sector - Employment Statistical Update

    15 December 2014

    In 2003 the ILO organized a Tripartite Meeting on the Future of Employment in the Tobacco Sector. The meeting highlighted the importance of timely information in order to monitor significant changes in employment trends and working conditions in the tobacco sector and called upon the Office to undertake further research to keep ILO constituents informed about emerging changes affecting the labour market in this sector.