Working papers


  1. Rural teachers in Africa: a report for ILO

    08 February 2017

    Lack of access to education in rural areas is one of the main development challenges in education. Evidence shows that primary school enrolment rates in rural areas lag behind urban rates in most developing countries. In rural areas, learning outcomes are lower, and completion rates for girls lag behind those in urban areas. Teacher quality is lower, pupil-to-teacher ratios are higher, and teacher retention and teacher absenteeism are larger problems. This paper examines African responses to the rural teacher challenge, and highlights good practices and approaches aimed at fostering motivated and qualified teachers for rural areas.

  2. Macroeconomic policy, employment and decent work in India

    19 January 2017

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 205

  3. The role of labour market and sectoral policies in promoting more and better jobs in low middle income countries: Issues, evidence and policy options: The case of India

    19 January 2017

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 206

  4. Report on temporary employment agencies and temporary agency work

    17 January 2017

    This report provides an overview of the regulation of temporary agency work in 13 EU Member States, and examines both national and supranational rules shaping temporary work relations in those countries.

  5. Report on collective dismissals: A comparative and contextual analysis of the law on collective redundancies

    17 January 2017

    This report provides an overview of collective dismissal regulation in 13 EU Member States, and examines both national and supranational rules shaping collective redundancy processes in those countries.

  6. The impact of procurement practices in the electronics sector on labour rights and temporary and other forms of employment

    16 January 2017

    This working paper looks at the purchasing practices and how they impact rights at work, wages, working hours, non-standard forms of employment and occupational safety and health. It further discusses public governance and private standards in the electronics supply chain and concludes by evaluating how different stakeholders can impact the purchasing practices.

  7. The distribution of value added among firms and countries: The case of the ICT manufacturing sector

    10 January 2017

    This paper investigates the evolutions of the supply chain in ICT manufacturing sector since 2000 and discusses the impact of these evolutions in terms of distribution of the value added across firms and across countries. These evolutions stem from massive reconfigurations in the industry which began in the early 1980s leading to a deep transformation in the international division of labour. This paper also discusses the opportunities and conditions for economic upgrading in the ICT value chain through several examples.


  1. Evaluating the effects of the structural labour market reforms on collective bargaining in Greece

    15 December 2016

    The present report assesses the social and economic impact of the changes in the regulatory framework of collective bargaining in Greece.

  2. Social protection systems in Latin America: An assessment

    08 December 2016

    This paper assesses the present state of social protection systems in Latin America and their future challenges.

  3. Health workforce: A global supply chain approach. New data on the employment effects of health economies in 185 countries.

    08 December 2016

    This paper provides evidence that investments in health protection not only impact on the achievement of health objectives, but also create an important source of employment across numerous economic sectors.