Working papers

  1. ILO Working paper 40

    Financing human-centred COVID-19 recovery and decisive climate action worldwide: International cooperation’s twenty-first century moment of truth

    07 October 2021

    This Working Paper provides a concrete illustration of how the existing international financial architecture could be activated more fully to mobilize the large sums required to respond decisively to the “great divergence” in COVID-19 crisis recovery between advanced and developing countries as well as to the climate crisis.

  2. ILO Working paper 39

    Welfare Effects of Unemployment Benefits when Informality is High

    05 August 2021

    We analyze for the first time how the high incidence of informal employment affects the welfare effects of unemployment benefits (UBs) outside of developed economies, exploiting matched administrative and survey data from the UB scheme of Mauritius. We find positive and large welfare effects, because the consumption drop at layoff exceeds what studies find for high-income countries, while the efficiency costs are comparatively low. In addition, UB recipients appear to move into informal employment out of economic necessity, rather than as part of a strategic choice.

  3. ILO Working paper 38

    Freelance platform work in the Russian Federation: 2009–2019

    26 July 2021

    This paper traces the development of freelance platform work in the Russian Federation based on unique data from four online surveys conducted over the period 2009 and 2019 via the leading platform for creative and knowledge-based work and analyses the working conditions and well-being of the workers.

  4. ILO Working paper 37

    Trade and Decent Work: Adequate Earnings in the Mexican Manufacturing Industries

    13 July 2021

    This paper analyses the impact of non-preferential trade liberalization and exposure to globalization on “adequate earnings” in Mexico between 2003 and 2020, using data from the national labour force and manufacturing industries surveys. Trade liberalization and globalization contributed to a reduction in working poverty and low-wage workers.

  5. ILO Working paper 36

    Trade agreements and decent work in Mexico: the case of the automotive and textile industries

    29 June 2021

    The study applies the framework of decent work indicators developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO), in combination with input–output analysis, to explore selected links between international trade and certain indicators of decent work in two industries of Mexico’s manufacturing sector: automotive and textile.

  6. ILO Working paper 35

    Estimating labour market transitions from labour force surveys: The case of Viet Nam

    23 June 2021

    This paper discusses methodologies to estimate the incidence and frequency of labour market transitions, and applies these methodologies to labour force survey data from Viet Nam in 2011-19. It demonstrates the feasibility and value of transitions data for labour market analysis.

  7. ILO Working paper 34

    Old age work and income security in middle income countries: comparing the cases

    25 May 2021

    This paper considers the demographic ageing trend experienced in 35 middle-income countries. It examines employment and other related dimensions that can reflect their preparedness to secure adequate income for their ageing population. Drawing from country-specific indicators, this study applies factor analysis to approximate underlying relative differences between countries in terms of economic and social preparedness, distributional vulnerability and gender inequality.

  8. ILO Working Paper 33

    Preferential tax regimes for MSMEs: Operational aspects, impact evidence and policy implications

    17 June 2021

  9. ILO Working paper 32

    Digital Work in Eastern Europe: Overview of Trends, Outcomes, and Policy Responses

    25 May 2021

    This paper presents the emergence and growth of digital labour markets in Eastern Europe over the period 1999-2019. It presents the profiles of digital workers, their working conditions and discusses how these are shaped by the business models of digital labour platforms.

  10. ILO Working paper 31

    Turning up the heat: Exploring potential links between climate change and gender-based violence and harassment in the garment sector

    17 May 2021

    This working paper highlights the intersection between climate change and gender-based violence and harassment by exploring how climate change, measured by increasing heat stress and extreme weather events, could lead to heightened violence being faced by the (mostly female) workers in the sector as a result of its impact on productivity.