Working papers


  1. The Future of Work: A Literature Review

    17 April 2018

    An enormous amount of literature has emerged over the last few years in the context of the “Future of Work”. Academics, think tanks and policy makers have fuelled rich discussions about how the future of work might look like and how we can shape it. Indeed, labour markets in developing and developed countries are likely to undergo major transformations in the next years and decades. However, despite a growing body of research in this area, there exists no universally accepted definition of what exactly the “Future of Work” encompasses and what the most relevant drivers are.

  2. The transition in play: Worldwide employment trends in the electricity sector

    17 April 2018

    This paper analyses the employment effects of electricity generation by different sources on a worldwide scale as observed since the year 2000.

  3. The gendered effects of air pollution on labour supply

    17 April 2018

    This paper draws on 20 years of systematic data collection on employment and air pollution to explore the link between air pollution and labour supply.

  4. Exporting, importing and wages in Africa: Evidence from matched employer-employee data

    17 April 2018

    This paper studies wages in exporting and importing firms of the manufacturing sector in Africa, using firm-level data and employer-employee-level data from the World Bank Enterprise Surveys.

  5. Good practices in using partnerships for employment services in China COVER

    09 April 2018

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 229

  6. Good practices in using partnerships for the delivery of employment services in China

    09 April 2018

    EMPLOYMENT Working Paper No. 229

  7. Zero-Hours Work in the United Kingdom

    06 April 2018

  8. The future of work in African agriculture: Trends and drivers of change

    04 April 2018

    This report synthesizes available evidence regarding how salient demographic and economic trends in sub-Saharan Africa are influencing the future of work in agriculture. It also identifies some of the major policy challenges that African governments are facing, which may influence future work in agriculture.

  9. Organizing On-Demand: Representation, Voice, and Collective Bargaining in the Gig Economy

    29 March 2018

  10. Constraints and good practice in women’s entrepreneurship in MENA

    22 March 2018

    Case study: New evidence on gender attitudes towards women in business